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When the pterosaur was not in flight, the finger and membrane were extended rearward along the flanks. Such species also often show a fusion of the front dorsal vertebrae into a rigid whole which is called the notarium after a comparable structure in birds. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! This was an adaptation to withstand the forces caused by flapping the wings. These keep the image on an animal's retina steady. Some scientists, notably Matthew Wilkinson, have argued that the pteroid pointed forward, extending the forward membrane and allowing it to function as an adjustable flap. "An unusual modification of the jaws in cf. While azhdarchid pterosaurs probably could not run, they would have been relatively fast and energy efficient.  The thighbone was rather straight, with the head making only a small angle with the shaft. New and old fossils yielded much more information when subjected to modern ultraviolet light or roentgen photography, or CAT-scans. Perhaps it pursued relatively large prey, in view of its reinforced jaw joints and relatively high bite force. When most people think of pterosaurs, they think of flying creatures snapping up fish and small animals in their large jaws. ", "Early penguin fossils, plus mitochondrial genomes, calibrate avian evolution", "Late Maastrichtian pterosaurs from North Africa and mass extinction of Pterosauria at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary", "Does morphology reflect osteohistology-based ontogeny? , The rare conditions that allowed for the fossilisation of pterosaur remains, sometimes also preserved soft tissues.
 However, this traditional division has been largely abandoned. The skull, with its long, slender beak, was delicate but strong, with most of the component bones being fused. The developmental origin of the insect wing remains in dispute, as does the purpose prior to true flight.
The evolution of pterosaurs roughly paralleled that of their terrestrial cousins, the dinosaurs, as the small, "basal" species of the late Triassic period gradually gave way to bigger, more advanced forms in the Jurassic and Cretaceous.  This suggests that their membranes were split, increasing flight manoeuvrability.  If a crest was present on the snout, the symphysis could feature a matching mandible crest, jutting out to below. Rhamphorhynchoidea is a term that has included all the basal forms up to the Late Jurassic Epoch (161 million to 146 million years ago). The cladogram (family tree) below follows a phylogenetic analysis presented by Longrich, Martill and Andres in 2018. Since the 1990s, pterosaur finds and histological and ultraviolet examination of pterosaur specimens have provided incontrovertible proof: pterosaurs had pycnofiber coats. Early-on it was recognised that the small Anurognathidae were nocturnal, aerial insectivores. Where they ended has been very controversial but since the 1990s a dozen specimens with preserved soft tissue have been found that seem to show they attached to the ankles.  Dsungaripteridae were specialist molluscivores, using their powerful jaws to crush the shells of molluscs and crustaceans. Despite these huge dimensions, Quetzalcoatlus could not escape the fate that befell all of the flying reptiles, dinosaurs, and large marine reptiles.
Pterosaurs' hip sockets are oriented facing slightly upwards, and the head of the femur (thigh bone) is only moderately inward facing, suggesting that pterosaurs had an erect stance. Pterosaurs (/ ˈ t ɛr ə s ɔːr, ˈ t ɛr oʊ-/; from Greek pteron and sauros, meaning "wing lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.They existed during most of the Mesozoic: from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous (228 to 66 million years ago).Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight. Because the animal is in motion, there is some airflow relative to its body which, combined with the velocity of its wings, generates a faster airflow moving over the wing.